The long-term goal of this study is to understand how physicians' attitudes can potentially influence interactions with patients of different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, and how patient adherence is affected. An examination of this three-fold connection would assist in development and/or improvement of multicultural training curricula in medical education programs. The purpose of this study is to measure health professionals underlying attitudes toward patients of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds or low SES, in relation to their self-reported level of involving the patient in the treatment process. Research has consistently demonstrated higher rates of non-adherence to medical treatment, morbidity and mortality for patients from low income and minority backgrounds. Our hypothesis is that physician attitudes and behaviors may be related to patient non-adherence, which may then, in part, explain differential outcomes. This study is the first step in beginning to examine the relationship between such attitudes about patients and their relationship to behaviors of physicians. We are not examining physician behaviors in this first step, rather we are looking at the extent to which medical students would actively include and empower patients in the treatment planning process. This is one outcome that has been empirically related to attitudes toward patients, with higher inclusion scores representing more desirable medical care.