What is Consumer Research?
Consumer research is a part of market research in which inclination, motivation and purchase behavior of the targeted customers are identified. Consumer research helps businesses or organizations understand customer psychology and create detailed purchasing behavior profiles.
It uses research techniques to provide systematic information about what customers need. Using this information brands can make changes in their products and services, making them more customer-centric thereby increasing customer satisfaction. This will in turn help to boost business.
An organization that has in-depth understanding about customer decision-making process, is most likely to design a product, put a certain price tag to it, establish distribution centers and promote a product based on consumer research insights such that it produces increased consumer interest and purchases.
Consumer Research Objectives
When a brand is developing a new product, consumer research is conducted to understand what consumers want or need in a product, what attributes are missing and what are they looking for?
Consumer research is conducted to improve brand equity. A brand needs to know what consumers think when buying a product or service offered by a brand. Consumer insights are essential to determine brand positioning among consumers.
Consumer research is conducted to boost sales. The objective of consumer research is to look into various territories of consumer psychology and understand their buying pattern, what kind of packaging they like and other similar attributes that help brands to sell their products and services better.
Consumer Research Model
According to a study conducted, till a decade ago, researchers thought differently about the consumer psychology, where little or no emphasis was put on emotions, mood or the situation that could influence a customer’s buying decision.
Many believed marketing was applied economics. Consumers always took decisions based on statistics and math and evaluated goods and services rationally and then selected items from those brands that gave them highest customer satisfaction at the lowest cost.
However, this is no longer the situation. Consumers are very well aware of brands and its competitors. A loyal customer is the one who would not only return to repeatedly purchase from a brand but also, recommend his/her family and friends to buy from the same brand even if the prices are slightly higher, but provides an exceptional customer service for products purchased or services offered.
Here is where Net Promoter Score (NPS) helps brands identify brand loyalty and customer satisfaction with their consumers. Net Promoter Score survey uses a single question that is sent to customers to identify their brand loyalty and level of customer satisfaction. Response to this question is measured on a scale between 0-10 and based on this consumers can be identified as:
Detractors: Who have given a score between 0-6.
Passives: Who have given a score between 7-8.
Promoters: Who have given a score between 9-10.
Consumer market research is based on two types of research method:
1. Qualitative Consumer Research
Focus Groups: Focus groups as the name suggests is a small group of highly validated subject experts who come together to analyze a product or service. Focus group comprises of 6-10 respondents. A moderator is assigned to focus group, who helps facilitate discussions among the members to draw meaningful insights
One-to-one Interview: This is a more conversational method, where the researcher asks open ended questions to collect data from the respondents. This method heavily depends on the expertise of researcher. How much the researcher is able to probe with relevant questions to get maximum insights. This is a time-consuming method and can take more than one attempt to gain the desired insights.
Content/ Text Analysis: Text analysis is a qualitative research method where researchers analyze the social life by decoding words and images from the documents available. Researchers analyze the context in which the images are used and draw conclusions from them. Social media is an example of text analysis. In the last decade or so, inferences are drawn based on consumer behavior on social media.
Learn More: How to conduct Qualitative Research
2.Quantitative Consumer Research
In the age of technology and information, meaningful data is more precious than platinum. Billion dollar companies have risen and fallen on how well they have been able to collect and analyze data, to draw validated insights.
Qualitative research is all about numbers and statistics. An evolved consumer who purchases regularly can vouch for how customer-centric businesses have become today. It’s all about customer satisfaction, to gain loyal customers. With just one questions companies are able to collect data, that has the power to make or break a company. Net Promoter Score question, “On a scale from 0-10 how likely are you to recommend our brand to your family or friends?”
How organic word-of-mouth is influencing consumer behavior and how they need to spend less on advertising and invest their time and resources to make sure they provide an exceptional customer service.
Online surveys, questionnaires, and polls are the preferred data collection tools. Data that is obtained from consumers is then statistically, mathematically and numerically evaluated to understand consumer preference.
Learn more: How to carry out Quantitative Research
Consumer Research Process
The process of consumer research started as an extension to the process of market research. Like the findings of market research is used to improve decision-making capacity of an organization or business, similar is with consumer research.
Consumer research process can be broken down into following steps:
- Develop research objectives: The first step to consumer research process is to clearly define research objective, purpose of research, why is the research being conducted, to understand what? A clear statement of purpose can help emphasize on the purpose.
- Collect Secondary data: Collect secondary data first, it helps in understanding if research has been conducted earlier and if there are any pieces of evidence related to the subject matter that can be used by an organization to make informed decisions regarding consumers.
- Primary Research: In primary research organizations or businesses collect their own data or employ a third party to collect data on their behalf. This research makes use of various data collection methods (qualitative and quantitative) that helps researchers collect data first hand.
- Collect and analyze data: Data is collected and analyzed and inference is drawn to understand consumer behavior and purchase pattern.
- Prepare report: Finally, a report is prepared of all the findings by analyzing data collected so that organizations are able to make informed decisions and think of all probabilities related to consumer behavior. By putting the study into practice, organizations can become customer-centric and manufacture products or render services that will help them achieve excellent customer satisfaction.
Customer Research Questions
Asking the right question is the most important part of conducting a research. Moreover, if it’s consumer research, questions should be asked in a manner to gather maximum insights from consumers. Here are some consumer research questions for your next research:
- Who in your household takes purchasing decisions?
- Where do you go looking for ______________ (product)?
- How long does it take you to make a buying decision?
- How far are you willing to travel to buy ___________(product)?
- What features do you look for when you purchase ____________ (product)?
- What motivates you to buy_____________ (product)?
See more consumer research survey questions:
Importance of Consumer Research
Launching a product or offering new services can be quite an exciting time for a brand. However, there are a lot of aspects that need to be taken into consideration while a band has something new to offer to consumers.
Here is where consumer research plays a pivotal role. The importance of consumer research cannot be emphasized more. Following points summarizes the importance of consumer research:
- To understand market readiness: However good a product or service may be, consumers have to be ready to accept it. Creating a product requires investments which in return expect ROI from product or service purchases. However, if a market is mature enough to accept this utility, it has a low chance of succeeding by tapping into market potential. Therefore, before launching a product or service, organizations need to conduct consumer research, to understand if people are ready to spend on the utility it provides.
- Identify target consumers: By conducting consumer research, brands and organizations can understand their target market based on geographic segmentation and know who exactly is interested in buying their products. According to the data or feedback received from consumer, research brands can even customize their marketing and branding approach to better appeal to the specific consumer segment.
- Product/Service updates through feedback: Conducting consumer research, provides valuable feedback from consumers about attributes and features of products and services. This feedback enables organizations to understand consumer perception and provide a more suitable solution based on actual market needs which helps them tweak their offering to perfection.