What is Quantitative Research?

Quantitative research methods focus on garnering information via methods such as polls, questionnaires, and surveys. Once the quantitative data is collected, further computational analysis using statistical methods can be performed.

Quantitative research methods are usually implemented to conclude a relationship between two or more variables within the target audience. For a researcher, conducting quantitative research is either an investigational or descriptive process by handling numbers and logic using various poll software or survey software. The conclusions drawn from this research are primarily based on the fact that most of the members of a population have similar characteristics.

Quantitative research has clearly defined questions for which answers are to be obtained from this population by taking into considering various behavioral factors of the target audience.

Types of Quantitative Research Methods

There are four different types of quantitative research methods:

1. Survey Research: Survey research is a research method where researchers can analyze customer behavior using sources such as online polls, surveys, questionnaires. This type of research can be conducted with a specific target audience group and also can be conducted across multiple groups along with comparative analysis. A prerequisite for this type of research is that the sample of respondents must have randomly selected members. This way, a researcher can easily maintain the accuracy of the obtained results as a huge variety of respondents will be addressed using random selection. Traditionally, survey research was conducted face-to-face or via phone calls but with the progress made by online mediums such as email or social media, survey research has spread to online mediums as well.

Example of Survey Research Questions:

    • How was your experience with our customer care executive?
    • What are your thoughts on our current website?
    • Participate in this survey to win 100 Amazon gift points.

2. Correlational Research: As the name suggests, researchers use this quantitative research method to correlate two or more variables using mathematical analysis methods. Patterns, relationships, and trends between variables are concluded as they exist in their natural set up. The impact of one of these variables on the other is observed along with how it changes the relationship between the two variables. Researchers tend to manipulate one of the variables to attain the desired results.

Ideally, it is advised to not make conclusions merely on the basis of correlational research. This is because it is not mandatory that if two variables are in sync that they are interrelated.

Example of Correlational Research Questions:

    • The relationship between stress and depression.
    • The equation between fame and money.
    • The relation between activities in a third-grade class and its students.

3. Causal-Comparative Research: This research method mainly depends on the factor of comparison. Also called the quasi-experimental research, this quantitative research method is used by researchers to draw conclusions about cause-effect equation between two or more variables, where one variable is dependent on the other independent variable. The independent variable is established but not manipulated and its impact on the dependent variable is observed. These variables or groups must be formed as they exist in the natural set up. As the dependent and independent variables will always exist in a group, it is advised that the conclusions are carefully established by keeping all the factors in mind.

Causal-comparative research is not restricted to the statistical analysis of two variables but extends to analyzing how various variables or groups change under the influence of the same changes. This research is conducted irrespective of the type of relation that exists between two or more variables. Statistical analysis is used to distinctly present the outcome of obtained using this quantitative research method.

Example of Causal-Comparative Research Questions:

    • The impact of drugs on a teenager.
    • The effect of good education on a freshman.
    • The effect of substantial food provision in the villages of Africa.

4. Experimental Research: Also known as true experimentation, this research method is reliant on a theory. There can be multiple theories in experimental research. A theory is a statement which can be verified or refuted.

After establishing the statement, efforts are made to understand whether it is valid or invalid. This type of quantitative research method is mainly used in natural or social sciences as there are various statements which need to be proved right or wrong.  

    • Traditional research methods are more effective than modern techniques.
    • Systematic teaching schedules help children who find it hard to cope up with the course.
    • It is a boon to have responsible nursing staff for ailing parents.

Learn about: Qualitative Research

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